Home Nursing Care For Burn Patients

Our nurses have experience in providing a wide range of patient burns care services, which includes:

    Home Nursing Care For Burn Patients

    Our nurses have experience in providing a wide range of patient burns care services, which includes:

      Nursing Care For Burn Patients

      Numerous cases of burn injuries due to non-accidental or accidental events are reported each day. The World Health Organization estimates 180,000 deaths due to burns annually. At present, non-fatal burns are the primary cause of morbidity. But the bad news about burn injuries is that they are not completely curable. Adequate precautionary measures should be adopted worldwide to prevent life-threatening injuries due to burns.


      Injuries of the skin and underlying body tissues caused by heat, radiation, electricity or chemicals are called BURN.

      Effects of burn injuries are usually very disastrous, some of which can be as follows –


      • Blisters releasing fluids on rupture
      • Erythema can occur in a few cases causing dilation of blood vessels
      • Reddish patch all over the affected area, associated with mild to severe pain
      • Leathery texture and whitening of the skin in case of severe injuries, causing lack of sensation when touched
      • Bleeding from skin
      • Permanent loss of skin in the affected areas
      • Exposed skeletal structures due to severe injuries

      The burn incidents reported on a regular basis are mostly accidental, though there might be few other causes as well. The main causes of burns are as follows:


      Heat/Fire: 96 % burn cases are accounted from fire. Thermal burns can also be caused by hot fluids, steam etc. Burns caused by fumes or flames, penetrate the dermal layer causing long-term injuries. They can also cause respiratory disorders.


      Electricity: Electrical burn injuries are caused due to the high voltage current passing across the whole body. It can be caused due to electrocution by short-circuited wires, lightening etc. In critical cases, cardiac arrests have been reported due to a high-voltage attack.


      Chemicals: Chemical burn injuries are caused due to contacts with strong harmful chemicals like Hydrochloric acid, Sulphuric acid etc. These burns cause serious damage to tissues and are very serious in nature.

      Burn injuries can be classified into three categories depending on the intensity of the damage. These are discussed below:


      First degree burns: First degree burns are less critical and impact only the superficial layer of the epidermis. Causes due to a mild inflammatory response by the skin. First degree burn is characterized by reddishness of the skin, which later on swells and can be peeled off as thin flakes. They normally take less than 7 days to heal completely. Sunburn is a typical example of the first-degree burn.


      Second degree burns: Second-degree burn is serious in nature than first degree burns and affects the deeper layers till papillary dermis. It causes painful, pinkish blisters and leads to loss of skin when peeled off. It takes more than 3 weeks to heal. Second-degree burn includes chemical burns.


      Third degree burns: It causes serious damage to the dermis, subcutaneous tissues, and hair follicles and penetrates into all the layers of the epidermis. The skin turns leathery and thick and loses sensitivity to touch. These types of burn injuries are due to fire or electrocution. The damaged skin may not regenerate naturally and might require related surgeries or grafting.

      The treatment of burns depends on the extent of the injury and the type of burn. Minor, less harmful burns can be treated with over-the-counter medications. However, major burns require an appropriate assessment of the wound and first aid care. OTC medications such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen and naproxen can be given.


      The treatment of severe burns also comprises medications, wound dressings therapy, surgery etc. The treatment aims at relieving pain, preventing infection, removing dead tissue, and reducing scarring. The treatment also aims to address the emotional needs of the patient and to help in regaining function.


      Medications and wound healing products employed are pain and anxiety medications, antibiotics, burn creams and ointments and dressings. In some cases, water-based treatments such as ultrasound mist therapy can be given. Intravenous administration of fluids is done in order to prevent dehydration and organ failure.


      A tetanus shot may also be recommended after a burn injury.


      Physical and occupational therapy may be required in cases of joint involvement. It helps in augmenting muscle strength and coordination. It maintains the flexibility of the joint by helping the skin to stretch.


      Surgical intervention: procedure such as insertion of a feeding tube, skin grafts, plastic surgery, tracheostomy (insertion of a hollow pipe into the airway passage).


      Burns can be prevented by improving awareness, strengthening burn care, identifying and eliminating risk factors, encouraging burn prevention programs, and training of communities in first aid.

      The goal of nurse is to deliver proper nursing care for burn patients, in order to prevent them from any infections. The nursing care plans for burns consists of five steps, which together facilitate the delivery of high-quality, individualized patient care. The five steps are as follows:


      1.)    Assessment is the first step of the process and is a systemic approach to collecting information about the patient.

      2.)    Diagnosis, the second step, is the nurse’s analysis of the assessment.

      3.)    Outcomes/planning uses the two previous steps to determine patient goals, both long- and short term, desired outcomes and appropriate nursing interventions.

      4.)    Implementation is the action portion of the nursing process and care plan.

      5.)    Evaluation of both the patient’s response to interventions and progress toward achieving outcome goals is critical.


      The nursing process is both interactive and dynamic. While creating the nursing care plan for burn patient, the nurse uses their theory, clinical expertise and nursing judgment. The nursing care plan for burn child would also be more or less the same, however more care needs to be taken as their skin is very sensitive

      Exercise following a burn injury is an extremely important part of treatment. The goal of the exercise is to return to a person’s prior level of independence. Occupational and Physical Therapists work with patients to design individualized exercise programs. The exercises and activities include cardiovascular and strengthening exercises, stretching to prevent contractures of the joints, and play or leisure activities. It is very important to work on exercises every day and especially every morning after getting up. This will help stretch out the tight skin so that moving the rest of the day will be easier.


      Common burn therapy exercises could include:


      Head & face


      • Making funny faces.




      • Looking at each side
      • Looking up and down
      • Watching TV with the neck stretched over a pillow


      Arms & hands


      • Jumping jacks
      • Lifting weights
      • Making fists
      • Practice writing
      • Holding a fork, spoon or knife
      • Holding and bouncing a small ball




      • Jumping jacks
      • Lifting weights
      • Walking or running
      • Riding a bike


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