Anemia Nursing Care

Our nurses are experienced in providing a complete range of nursing care specializations, including nursing care for anemia

    Anemia Nursing Care

    Our nurses are experienced in providing a complete range of nursing care specializations, including nursing care for anemia

      Nursing Care For Anemia

      Anemia is a condition in which your body don’t have enough healthy RBCs to carry adequate oxygen to the body tissues. Anemic condition can make you feel tired and weak.

       

      There are various forms of anemia each having its own cause. It can be temporary or long term and can range from mild to severe.You can consult your doctor if you suspect anemia as it is a warning sign of serious illness.

       

      Anemia treatment range from taking supplements to medical procedures. You can prevent it by following healthy diet.

      The signs and symptoms of anemia depends on the cause of anemia which include:

       

      Fatigue

      Weakness

      Pale skin

      Irregular heartbeat

      Shortness of breath

      Dizziness

      Chest pain

      Headache

       

      Initially the symptoms of anemia are mild but as the symptoms worsen anemia worsens too.

       

      When to see a doctor?

       

      If you feel tired or fatigue for some reasons you should consult your doctor. Some types of anemia are common that occur due to iron deficiency or vitamin B-12 deficiency.

      However, there are other causes of fatigue other than anemia. While donating blood if your hemoglobin is low then you need to make an appointment with your doctor.

       

      Causes

      The main cause of Anemia is that your blood doesn’t have enough RBCs. It can occur if:

       

      Your body don’t make enough RBCs

      Bleeding causes to lose RBCs quickly than they can be replaced

      Body destroys RBCs

       

      Function of RBCs

       

      Your body makes three types of blood cells: WBC to fight infection, platelets to help blood clot and RBC to carry oxygen throughout the body.

       

      RBC contain haemoglobin. It is an iron rich protein that enables RBC to carry oxygen from the lungs to the other parts of the body and carry carbon dioxide from other parts of body to your lungs.

       

      Blood cells including RBCs are produced in the bone marrow found in the cavity of large bone.Your body needs iron to produce hemoglobin which can be obtained from Vitamin B-12, folate and other nutrients of the food.

      Different types of anaemia and their causes:

       

      Iron deficiency anemia: It is caused by the shortage of iron in the body. Bone marrow requires iron to make haemoglobin. Without iron, the body can’t make enough haemoglobin for RBCs.

       

      In pregnant women, anemia occurs due to deficiency of iron supplements. Also, blood loss during menstrual bleeding, ulcer or some OTC medicines can cause anemia.

       

      Vitamin deficiency anemia: Along with iron, the body needs folate and vitamin B-12 to produce RBCs. A diet deficient in these nutrients can decrease RBC production.

       

      There are some people who consume enough Vitamin B-12 but their bodies are unable to process the vitamin. This vitamin deficiency anemia is also known as pernicious anemia.

       

      Anemia of chronic disease: Disease such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, rheumatoid arthritis, kidney disease, Crohn’s disease can interfere with the production of RBCs.

       

      Aplastic anemia: It occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough RBCs and can be caused by infections, medications, autoimmune diseases and exposure to toxic chemicals.

       

      Anemia linked with bone marrow disease: Leukemia and myelofibrosis can cause anemia by affecting blood production in your bone marrow.

       

      Hemolytic anemia: It develops when RBCs are destroyed faster than bone marrow can replace them.

       

      Sickle cell anemia: It is an inherited hemolytic anemia which can be caused by a defective form of hemoglobin that forces RBCs to form an abnormal crescent (sickle) shape.

       

      Types

      Currently there are more than 400 types of Anaemia known which are divided into three groups according to their cause:

      Anemia caused by blood loss

      Anemia caused by decreased production of RBC.

      Anemia caused by the destruction of RBCs.

       

      Types of anemia which comes under these categories are:

      sickle cell anemia

      vitamin deficiency anemia

      iron deficiency anemia

      blood-loss anemia

      Cooley’s anemia

      Pernicious anemia

      Treatment of Anemia depends on the cause:

       

      Iron deficiency anemia: Treatment involves taking iron supplements and making changes in your diet. The source of the bleeding must be located and stopped if iron deficiency is caused other than from menstruation.

       

      Vitamin deficiency anaemia: Folic acid and Vitamin B-12 deficiency treatment can be done by taking proper dietary supplements and increasing nutrients in your diet.

       

      Anaemia of chronic disease: Treating the underlying disease can help stimulate red blood cell production.

       

      Aplastic anemia: Treatment involves blood transfusion to boost levels of RBCs.

       

      Anaemia associated with bone marrow disease: Treatment include medication, chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation.

       

      Sickle cell anemia: Treatment can be done by the administration of oxygen, pain-reducing drugs and the intravenous fluids that can help reduce pain and prevent complications. The doctor can also recommend blood transfusions, folic acid supplements and antibiotics.

       

      Thalassemia: It can be treated with blood transfusions, folic acid supplements, medication, removal of the spleen or bone marrow stem cell transplant.

       

      Nursing care plan of Anaemia involves: Risk factors Assessment, reduce fatigue, maintaining sufficient nutrition and enough tissue perfusion, following prescribed treatment regimen and prevent complications.

       

      Four Nursing care plans and nursing diagnosis for patients with anemia are:

       

      Fatigue

      Inadequate Knowledge

      Risk For Infection

      Risk For Bleeding

      Assess and control signs of bleeding: External bleeding, Heavy menstruation, GI bleed

      Excess blood loss decreases oxygenation and poor perfusion.

       

      Perform 12-lead ECG

      Reduced blood volume can cause tachycardia and arrhythmias. Check for ST depression and QT prolongation.

       

      Replace fluid volume per facility protocol: IV fluids, Blood transfusion for HGB.

      Immediate transfusion is required if blood loss > 40%.

       

      Check diagnostic tests: Lab values, CT scans for liver or spleen lacerations, Fecal occult blood or non-invasive test to check for GI bleed.

       

      Abnormal lab values help to detect anemia cause and treatment plan.

      Lab values to monitor:

       

      HGB (Normal 12-15 g/dL females; 13.5 – 16.5 g/dL males)

       

      B12 (Normal 2 – 20 ng/mL)

       

      Ferritin (Normal 20-300 ng/mL)

       

      Iron (Normal 50-175 ug/dL)

       

      Monitor oxygen saturation and administer oxygen if required: If SpO2 is <94%, supply oxygen through a nasal cannula at 2L/min

      Lack of HGB decreased oxygenation and leads to hypoxia.

       

      1. Provide medications

      Pantoprazole to reduce acid and prevent bleeding of peptic ulcers

       

      IV fluids and electrolytes as required

       

      B12 injections or oral supplements

       

      Nutritional Awareness: Include green leafy vegetables such as spinach, kale and chard in your diet, Citrus fruits for vitamin C, Red meat, lamb, poultry and fish, Seafood and shellfish, Avoid calcium rich foods such as raw milk, yogurt, cheese and broccoli

       

      Vitamin C helps in the absorption of iron. You can include oranges, red peppers and strawberries.

      If you are anemic and your body doesn’t have enough RBCs to carry oxygen to the rest of the body then doing exercise becomes challenging. However, it’s not impossible though. You can follow the following precautions to maintain your workout routine when you are anemic.

       

      Start slowly: It is obvious to feel tired if you have anaemia. Make sure to start your workout slowly and increase the intensity over time. You can do yoga or take a walk rather than doing high intensity workout.



      Take breaks: If you feel tired while exercising take a pause and assess whether you can continue or not. If you feel exhausted sit down and catch your breath for sometime.



      Shorten time of your workout: Doing some exercise is better than none. Any amount of exercise is better than none. Though intense workout seem daunting so try to shorten the time and do short workouts.

       

      Timing is essential:You can workout when you feel energized. For some people, a morning workout is good as they have are highly energized at that time. For others, night session seems a better option.

       

      Talk to a doctor: Make sure to talk to your doctor to ensure that your workout routine is safe. Follow the treatment plan prescribed to you.

       

      Remember don’t overexert yourself. You can easily do exercise but make sure to listen to the body’s needs and act accordingly.

      At Care24, we provide in-home nursing services to suit your healthcare needs. Get the nursing care for Anemia services in the comfort of your home. We have highly qualified nurses for elderly care, post-surgical care, injections, wound care or vaccinations. The entire team strives to provide you with the compassionate care you and your loved ones deserve.

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